The gm aflatoxin for maize from loitokitok and busia was 9. Practical approaches to control mycotoxins iarc publications. Among 20 individual kernels picked at random from each location, aflatoxin contamination ranged from 150 to 21. Biological control of aflatoxins in maize and groundnut through use of aflasafe products developed for ghana. While food remains the most common use of maize regardless of the presence of the toxin, contaminated maize is relatively more likely to be used for the production of. Survey for contamination of aflatoxin in uganda maize.
Maize is an important staple crop for the majority of the population in uganda. Treated crops have significantly less aflatoxins than untreated crops. Occurrence of aflatoxins about 25% of maize and groundnut become contaminated with aflatoxins. In kenya, a crop of contaminated maize, ranging from more than 20 ppb to. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts. Evaluation of maize germplasm for resistance to aflatoxin.
Cabi signs contract to ensure greater food security through aflatoxin control in pakistan. Six maize germplasm lines, tzar101tzar106, were released by the international institute of tropical agriculturesouthern regional research center iitasrrc maize breeding collaboration for use in african national programs and u. The agricultural marketing service ams administers minimum quality and handling standards for domestic and imported peanuts marketed in the united states 7 cfr 996 parts 996. Aflatoxin b1 contamination in maize in europe increases due. The problem and genetic solutions find, read and cite all. Aflatoxin contamination resulting from maize infection by aspergillus flavus is both an economic and a public health concern.
Climate change impacts on aflatoxin b1 in maize and. Surveys conducted in north carolina in 1977 and 1978 on maize grain yields and aflatoxin contamination revealed a negative correlation between. Aflatoxin management for smallholder farmers of maize and groundnuts 5 comparable. Population structure, distribution, and toxigenicity of the causal agents article pdf available in plant disease 1024. Therefore the aim of the proposed work is to determine the fungal load of maize sample from dilla region of ethiopia and quantify the concentration of aflatoxins by using rapid and sensitive technique. Occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in maize throughout. Pdf prevalence of aflatoxin contamination in maize and. Pdf aflatoxin control in maize by trametes versicolor. Mean daily data used as input result from 100year run of the predictive model.
Download fulltext pdf download fulltext pdf aflatoxin control in maize by trametes versicolor article pdf available in toxins 612. To protect the safety of food commodities, regular monitoring for afltoxins in food is necessary. Maize and sesame samples were collected during a survey in five districts located in two agro. Chitinolytic enzymes respond to attack by potential pathogens and have. Briefly, the mechanistic model is based on the infection cycle of a. Aflatoxin b1 is a potent hepatacarcinogen that occurs in corn worldwide. Use of natural dietary spices for reclamation of food.
Although the cewsusceptible hybrid exhibited a trend towards increased damage by the insect, no treatmentrelated differences were observed in the presence of the fungus in larvae or in aflatoxin contamination. Because of high temperature and humidity as in uganda, fungus infection increased in maize therefore more aflatoxin produced. Prevalence of aflatoxin contamination in maize and groundnut in ghana. Maize is the staple for 96 percent of kenyas 40 million people, 3 and is the primary source of aflatoxin exposure in that country. Crop genetics and production research unit, usdaars. The difference in levels of fumonisin b1 between maize meal and maize grain samples was not signi. Aflatoxins, toxic secondary metabolites produced by some aspergillus species, are a universal agricultural economic problem and a critical health issue. Climate change impacts on aflatoxin b1 in maize and aflatoxin m1 in. The aflatoxininmaize problem cimmyt publications repository. Resistance of maize to preharvest mycotoxin contamination, specifically. New way of testing for aflatoxin improve food safety scidev. Pets also have died on several occasions in the past 20 years. Pleurotus ostreatus significantly degraded aflatoxin in nearly all strainafb 1 concentration combinations fig. Population structure, distribution, and toxigenicity of the causal agents.
Aflatoxin contamination makes a serious problem of food safety issue. Pdf aflatoxin control and prevention strategies in maize for sub. Unlike maize, there are no known cotton varieties that demonstrate enhanced resistance to a. Aflatoxin levels in maize and peanut and blood in women and children. A mechanistic model, aflamaize, was developed for aspergillus flavus on maize the risk of aflatoxin contamination is predicted from silk emergence to harvest. Nevertheless, in developing countries such as the democratic republic of congo, there is still a dearth of information regarding its natural occurrence, exposure to both humans and animals and strategies for controlling its proliferation or contamination of food crops. The abilities of eleven naturally occurring atoxigenic isolates in nigeria to reduce aflatoxin contamination in maize were evaluated in grain competition experiments and in. Mycotoxin contamination results in severe yield losses, reduces crop quality. Controlling aflatoxin and fumonisin in maize by crop. Therefore, strategies for controlling aflatoxin contamination in maize are being investigated.
Several types of aflatoxin 14 or more occur in nature, but four aflatoxins b 1, b 2, g 1 and g 2 are particularly dangerous to humans and animals as they have been found in all major food crops. In one study, aflatoxin levels were determined in 480 food samples including beans, maize. The legally allowable level of aflatoxin contamination in food for human consumption set by the kenyan regulatory authority is no more than 10 parts per billion. Nairobi there is a new way of testing milled maize that can pick the dangerous aflatoxin contamination and improve food safety, a study says. Postharvest management technologies for reducing aflatoxin. Aflatoxin impacts and potential solutions in agriculture, trade. Six years later in 2010, the government issued a public safety alert after finding that aflatoxins in maize in eastern kenya. Aflatoxin contaminated homegrown maize was the source of the outbreak, but the extent of regional contamination and status of maize in commercial markets market maize were unknown. Levels and daily intake estimates of aflatoxin b1 and fumonisin b1 in maize consumed by rural households in shamva and makoni districts of zimbabwe. Effect of aflatoxins on health aflatoxins are linked to. Aflatoxin management for smallholder farmers of maize and. Degradation of aflatoxin b 1 from naturally contaminated. Potential of lactic acid fermentation in reducing aflatoxin b1 and fumonisin b1 in tanzanian maizebased complementary gruel by frida albinusi nyamete a thesis submitted to michigan state university in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of. Jun 17, 2016 aflatoxins contamination of maize exhibits a serious threat to human and animal health over the past few decades.
Using qualitative market mapping to explore aflatoxin. The development of hostplant resistance as an approach to reduce aflatoxin contamination in maize has been met with challenges owing to the highly quantitative nature of this trait. It was found that there was a 92% decrease in aflatoxin levels in dehulled maize meal compared with undehulled maize meal. Fungal infection and aflatoxin contamination in maize. Qtl that consistently reduce aflatoxin levels in maize. Most probably aflatoxin contamination is the common agent for this disease. Also contaminated product lower their marketability and productivity, finally reduce incomes of household. Aflatoxin levels in maize and peanut and blood in women. Despite decades of control efforts, aflatoxin contamination is responsible for a global loss of millions of tons of crops each year. Contamination of the maize crop in other countries is more. Similarly for maize, 29% of samples in farmers households, and 14% in the local markets exceeded the eu safe limits. The development of resistant germplasm and the identification of genes contributing to resistance would aid in the reduction of the problem with a minimal need for intervention by farmers. On average, 400 g of maize is consumed per day showing the levels high demand for this cereal in every home.
Fungicide applications did not significantly reduce aflatoxin levels in. Temperature and drying time showed significant influence on the aflatoxin formation. Provitamin a carotenoids in grain reduce aflatoxin. Various models and datasets related to aflatoxins in the maize and dairy production chain have been developed and used but they have not yet been linked with each other. Characterization of the maize lipoxygenase gene family in. Aflatoxin contamination of maize grain and products causes serious health problems for consumers worldwide, and especially in low and middleincome countries where monitoring and safety standards are inconsistently implemented. Aflatoxin contamination of major food crops is a serious problem in senegal. In april 2004, one of the largest aflatoxicosis outbreaks occurred in rural kenya, resulting in 317 cases and 125 deaths. In the present study, aqueous extracts of judiciously selected natural dietary spices were evaluated for their ability to degrade aflatoxin b1 afb1. Using qualitative market mapping to explore aflatoxin contamination along the maize and groundnut value chains working paper 3 october 2010 jon. Afb1, the most potent aflatoxin was the predominant aflatoxin across all feeds with an average concentration of 9. Cimmyt, undp and usaid the international maize and wheat improvement center cimmyt is an internationally funded, nonprofit scientific research and training organization. Perennial and seasonal contamination of maize by aflatoxins in.
Transforming gender relations through the use of hermetic technology. Sep 11, 2019 aflatoxin levels in maize and peanut and blood in women and children. Maize farmer broadcasting aflasafe across her field. Aspergillus colonization and aflatoxin contamination of maize. Aflatoxin is found morecommonly in someplantproductsthan in others. Evidently, bulk quantities of maize must be appraised on the basis of individual kernels because toxinfree kernels often.
Several studies also showed that liver diseases are increasing in ethiopia and cause the death of many individuals. Aflatoxin contamination of maize grain is a huge economic and health problem, causing death and increased disease burden in much of the developing world and income loss in the developed world. Developing resistance to aflatoxin in maize and cottonseed. Various models and datasets related to aflatoxins in the maize and dairy production chain have been. Densities of aflatoxinproducing fungi were negatively correlated with elevation. Evaluation of maize inbred lines for resistance to preharvest. Additionally, acute exposure with extremely high levels of aflatoxins can lead to death. The low aflatoxin level in maize from outside the local area primarily reflects maize from loitokitok and busia, major import routes from neighboring african countries.
Among the highriskcrops are peanuts and peanut meal, corn and corn meal, brazil nuts, cottonseed and cottonseed meal, and copra. Effects of aflatoxin contamination of grains in ethiopia. Aflatoxin was detected in 36% of the maize samples across the three collection years table 1 with an average contamination of 11. The maize crop is third most impor tant crop in ethiopia after wheat and teff and accounts for largest share in total crop production befekadu and. Kenya, like most of the african countries, maize zea mays, l, is one of the most important cereal, both as food and animal feed 1,2,3. Aflatoxin levels in maize and peanut and blood in women and. A mechanistic weatherdriven model was developed based on the infection cycle of aspergillus flavus on maize to predict the risk of aflatoxin contamination in field on a daily basis from silk emergence to harvest.
Controlling aflatoxin and fumonisin in maize by crop management. Contamination of maize,zea mays, grain with aflatoxin, a naturally occurring toxin produced. Breeding for reduced grain aflatoxin accumulation is one of the best strategies presently available to lower grain aflatoxin accumulation. Aflatoxin contamination of maize kernels before harvest. In addition, an association mapping panel of 300 maize inbred lines was previously created specifically for the dissection of aflatoxin accumulation resistance. For this reason, transgenic approaches are being undertaken in cotton that utilize genes encoding antifungalantiaflatoxin factors from maize and other sources to counter fungal infection and toxin production. Aspergillus colonization and aflatoxin contamination of.
Levels and daily intake estimates of aflatoxin b1 and. The seven flour samples of maize, sorghum, millet, rice, water yam, cocoyam and potato did not contain aflatoxin b 1, b 2, g 1 and g 2 at detectable levels, which may be attributed to good processing techniques used. Aflatoxin occurs ubiquitously in maize and is both an economic and a public health concern due to its carcinogenic effects. Plant resistance is considered the best strategy for reducing aflatoxin accumulation. Measuring the demand for aflatoxin tested maize in kenya. For this reason, transgenic approaches are being undertaken in cotton that utilize genes encoding antifungalanti aflatoxin factors from maize and other sources to counter fungal infection and toxin production. It is a potent carcinogen, and its presence markedly reduces the value of grain. Aflatoxinfree transgenic maize using hostinduced gene. This study has determined the distribution of aflatoxin in malawi.
Prevalence data from africa suggests that aflatoxin contamination in maize, groundnuts and sorghum is higher than the european. Diallel analysis of aflatoxin accumulation in maize. Aflatoxin content of food has been associated with hepatoma frequency in uganda. Certain natural dietary spices, in addition to their use in food flavoring and preservation, have the ability to detoxify or degrade a wide range of chemical carcinogens. Aflamaize, a mechanistic model for aspergillus flavus. The consumption of aflatoxincontaminated commercial diets, in which the maize product is the source of the contaminant, has been the most common cause of the disease in dogs. The objectives of this study were to summarize sequence diversity and expression patterns for all lox genes in the maize genome, and map their effect on aflatoxin accumulation via linkage and association mapping. Aflatoxin is a naturally occurring toxic chemical byproduct from the growth of the fungus aspergillus flavus on corn and other crops such as peanuts and cottonseed. Previously identified sources of germplasm with reduced grain aflatoxin accumulation are excessively tall and late maturing. Using a unique dataset of maize samples and consumer interviews form eastern kenya, we find that the presence of the fungal contaminant aflatoxin is negatively associated with the use of maize flour for food. Aflatoxin control and prevention strategies in maize for subsaharan africa. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of climate change on aflatoxin b1 production in maize and its consequences on aflatoxin m1 contamination in dairy cows milk, using a full chain modelling approach.
Ubale, the crsled food for peace project in malawi, is using the icelisa indirect competitive for testing aflatoxin levels in groundnuts and found it costeffective and useful for testing multiple samples at a time. The aflatoxin levels in maize and peanuts that would achieve the 1100,000 lifetime hcc risk in these nations range from 9ngg in moldova the low allowable value is due largely to a high hbv prevalence in that nation to as high as 82ngg in finland, iceland, norway, and sweden where very low hbv prevalence, and very low levels of maize and. Aflatoxin contamination of commercial maize products during. Aflatoxin contamination of commercial maize products. New way of testing for aflatoxin improve food safety. Aflatoxinproducing fungi associated with preharvest maize. Vitamin a deficiency vad also compromises the health of millions of maize consumers in several regions of the world including large parts of subsaharan. Prevalence of aflatoxin contamina tion in maize and groundnut in ghana. The scientists who did the quality control system trial in kenya say that it improved food safety for about 10 million people in the country between 2014 and 2015. Apr 12, 2016 the mechanistic model, afla maize 20, was applied to predict aflatoxin contamination in maize during the growing season, at the european level. As a result, aflatoxin contamination of maize grain prior to harvest is considered more of a problem in that region of the country than elsewhere in the united states. Aflatoxin control and p revention strategies in maize for subsaharan africa.
The main challenge of maize production and other cereals is susceptibility to aflatoxin contamination, which is a recurrent problem in several. Occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in maize throughout the. The sequence of one gene, zmlox10, is reported from 5 inbred lines. We therefore suggest that dehulling the grain can be used to reduce aflatoxin levels in maize. Characterization of the maize chitinase genes and their. The regulation requires domestically marketed peanuts for human consumption to be analyzed for aflatoxin by a usda or usda. Contamination of maize grain with aflatoxin has major economic implications and negative health consequences strosnider et al. In total, lox genes were identified, characterized, and mapped. In 2004, 125 kenyans died because of consuming aflatoxin infested food. Infection of the host crop in this case maize by the responsible fungus a. Abstractmycotoxins affect poultry production by being present in the feed and directly causing a negative impact on bird. Despite the gravity of the problem, deployable solutions are still being sought. No hybrids have been identified with complete resistance.
Aflatoxin management for smallholder farmers of maize and groundnuts practices and technologies for detection and prevention although there are multiple types of mycotoxins, aflatoxins are of particular concern because of how their high toxicity affects human health and the significant economic losses associated with contaminated staple crops. Studies conducted by texas agrilife extension reports that some lines are less susceptible to aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxin, a toxin produced by the fungus aspergillus flavus link. A total of 9 spices including garlic allium sativum, ginger download fulltext pdf. Aflatoxin b 1 contamination in maize in europe increases due. Trace metal and aflatoxin concentrations in some processed. Aflatoxins in corn 3 consequences of high concentrations of aflatoxin in corn aflatoxins are very potent compounds that cause a variety of human and animal health problems. Evaluation of africanbred maize germplasm lines for. The levels of fb1in samples of maize and maize meal from shamva and makoni 10. In the present study, we used an immunochromatographic assay and thin layer chromatography assay for quantification of aflatoxin in maize samples. Reducing maizebased aflatoxin contamination and exposure in zimbabwe project brief. Aflatoxin is a major problem for corn producers and handlers in some years and only a minor problem in others. Frontiers mapping quantitative trait loci associated.
We show that hostinduced gene silencing is an effective method for eliminating this toxin in transgenic maize. In the past 15 years, much progress has been made in creating resistant maize inbred lines. Chronic exposure to aflatoxins can lead to liver cancer2, weakened immunity, worsening of certain diseases such as hepatitis b and hiv aids3 and has been associated with child stunting4. Pdf developing resistance to aflatoxin in maize and. Aflatoxincontaminated homegrown maize was the source of the outbreak, but the extent of regional contamination and status of maize in. Examination of 11 maize samples from the 1964 and 1965 crop years demonstrated that 2. Cabi has signed a contract with the crop diseases research institute cdri to help ensure greater food security in pakistan by evaluating an ecofriendly biocontrol to mitigate poisonous aflatoxins which can decimate crops such as maize and wheat. Frontiers mapping quantitative trait loci associated with. Assessment of aflatoxin contamination of maize, peanut. An outbreak of aflatoxin poisoning in dogs associated with. Currently, much of the corn germplasm available is susceptible to aflatoxin contamination.
Moreover, the mutagenicity of breakdown products from the maize substrate, and reversion of breakdown products to the parent compound, were minimal. Here we report the results of a genomewide association study gwas using. Aflatoxin b 1 contamination in maize in europe increases. Maize samples from the guinea savannah zone sg exhibited. Genetic diversity of aspergillus flavus and occurrence of.546 1538 484 1349 818 733 1025 1395 825 409 1181 1407 1441 1374 617 518 771 1592 319 19 1513 961 17 927 973 1433 720 1563 404 1459 1336 1335 712 434 10 172 684 841 730 551 275